Shelter is a fundamental human need. But unfortunately, one-fifth of the world’s population lives in slums. With rapid urbanisation, large-scale migration takes place from rural to urban areas in search of livelihood opportunities; and in the absence of inclusive urban planning, it creates shortage of housing, water, sanitation, health, education, social security and livelihood, leading to extremely poor living conditions for urban poor.
The economically weaker section (EWS), lower income group (LIG),lower middle income group (LMIG)and middle income group (MIG) make vital contributions to the growth of a city; hence, an inclusive city is essential to ensure healthy urbanization. The rising land and construction costs have made affordable housing a far cry for the EWS, LIG, LMIG and MIG households in the urban areas; and their requirements can only be met if the state (through appropriate policy instruments and supporting legal framework), municipal bodies (through proactive partnership and support), development authorities and the state housing board (through obligatory provisions in development control regulations, proper spatial planning and affordable housing schemes), housing finance institutions (through adequate lending to both developers and end-use borrowers at affordable lending rates)and private developers (through focus on affordable housing sector) join hands to make it possible.
Housing is generally the single largest expenditure of low and middle income group households. It is also the prime asset for these families. Therefore, given the high land and construction costs, it is necessary to review the urban planning process in general and housing strategies in particular to make the urban growth process inclusive.